I am introducing a new category of post into my blog, created for exciting designs that were never built or realized. I am christening this category with a home designed by Thomas Jefferson and drafted by his draftsman/apprentice Robert Mills in 1803. Mills would later become one of the US’s first practicing architects training under the Irish architect James Hoban and later Charles Bulfinch. It is not clear just how much input Mills had on this design if any but the end result was truly impressive. The plan is a rendition on Palladio’s Villa Rotunda (see my recent post on Palladio’s villa) with some alterations. Two porticoes were removed and the number of columns was reduced to 4 from Palladio’s 6. The size of the Ionic columns were also scaled down to 1.5 diameters or 18″ from Palladio’s 24″ diameter columns. In addition two octagonal bays were added supporting decks above them. The total size of the building is slightly larger than Villa Rotunda, yet it has a smaller rotunda. These changes make the house more functional compared to Palladio’s highly stylized plan. What surprised me the most was the shear number of fireplaces in this house. There were a total of 24 fireplaces in the house; considering this plan was drawn prior to central heating I guess that is to be expected, but one can only imagine the amount of soot generated by all of those fireplaces and all of the work to clean them and keep them stoked. The house appeared to have 10 bedrooms with no apparent bathrooms and neither kitchen nor laundry facilities appearing on the plans, so it is likely that those were relegated to the basement or dependency wings not shown.
One can clearly see Jefferson’s influence in the design, Mills incorporates the same bed alcoves found in Monticello into all of his bedrooms and the entrance hall has the same door/window layout as Monticello’s entrance hall.
Mills also creates 2 Jeffersonian parlors representing the dining room and study in his design.
The thickness of the masonry walls used in the home’s construction was noteworthy and worth commenting on. The exterior walls are almost 2 feet thick as are some interior walls containing multiple fireplaces. The thick interior walls seemed irregular until I came across this design for Stratford Hall (built in 1725) which illustrates how multiple chimney stacks rest on the structural walls below them. This chimney arrangement is probably what Mills is representing on his plans yet
strangely with all of these fireplaces, the Mills’ elevation shows no protruding chimneys. Mills also uses splayed windows to bring in more light to offset the heaviness that those extra thick walls would create for its occupants.
I created the Mills’ dome house in the computer and generated several renderings depicting the feel of the interior and exterior spaces. I kept to the original design, eliminating one or two fireplaces I found superfluous and added 2 dependency wings (one for a greenhouse and another for stables) in true Palladian style connected by loggias. I also created a landscaping plan and added a tea house on the property as well. The rooms in the home were decorated in the Federal style consistent with the 1803 time frame for this design.
1. Thomas Jefferson Foundation. 18 March 2016. Thomas Jefferson Foundation website. Accessed March 18, 2016 “http://www.monticello.org/sites/default/files/uploaded-content-images/HABS-House-and-dependencies-plan.jpg?/>
2. Moore, Charles and Gerald Allen, Donlyn Lyndon. The Place of Houses. Berkley: University of California Press, 1974. 86.
3. “Thomas Jefferson Notes files” 18 March 2016. Accessed March 18, 2016 “http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/wilson/TJA/tja.notes.html/”>
4. “Robert Mills’ Plan For a Rotunda House” 18 March 2016. Accessed March 18, 2016 “http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/wilson/cgi-bin/draw_filter.pl?id=N412/”>